- Hawaiian name: `Ili`ahi
Botanical name: Santalum spp.
Common name: Hawaiian Sandalwood
- Various descriptions:
- Santalum sp., Santalaceae, sandalwood, 'ili-ahi. Shrubs or trees native
in the region from India to Hawaii. These plants are partially parasitic
through root connections to a variety of host plants. The aromatic wood
is highly valued for construction of chests and boxes. The Hawaiians used
the powdered wood as a perfume. The aromatic oil from the wood is also used
for medicine and perfume. The first profitable export trade of the Hawaiian
Kingdom was based on Sandalwood, during the years 1790 - 1840. Location:
Hawaiian hiking trails.
- `Ili`ahi is group of native Hawaiian sandalwoods, several species of
which are still common on the major islands. They range in size from shrubs
to small trees. The lowland or coastal form is a low shrub, sometimes with
long branches and usually with thicker leaves than the mountain forms, an
adaptation for water conservation. The upland forms are upright shrubs or
small trees. Some species have long, tubular flowers that are dark red;
other species have smaller, funnel-shaped flowers that are yellowish-green.
The flowers lack true petals and are actually modified sepals.
- Sandalwood oil can only be produced from trees over 30 years old.
- naio (Myoporum sandwicense), is also called false sandalwood
- Endemic Hawaiian species:
- Santalum paniculatum
- found only on Hawai‘i island
- usually shrubby but can also be single-trunked and acheive the stature
of a mid-size tree
- Santalum ellipticum (coastal sandalwood)
- relatively widespread on all the islands
- Santalum freycinetianum
- found on most of the islands except Hawai‘i
- S. freycinetianum var. pyrularium
- S. freycinetianum var. auwahiense, from Maui
- S. freycinetianum
lanaiense, Lanai Sandalwood, listed as endangered
- Santalum haleakalae
- Found on the Big Island: S. ellipticum, S. paniculatum
on UH Botany site
From Say Goodbye to Sandalwood: "The glory days of sandalwood
export to China revived momentarily in 1988 when a Florida investor logged a
patch of 1,000 large and ancient sandalwood trees from his newly-acquired ranch
on the Big Island. These last survivors brought him a tidy $1 million."
- Outside Hawai‘i
- Santalum album, White Sandalwood, Sandalwood
- Santalum fernandezianum, endemic to the Robinson Crusoe
Islands, was driven to extinction
- Santalum acuminatum, Quandong, is a small tree occurring naturally
in arid and semi-arid regions of southern Australia.
- Santalum murrayanum Vitter Quondon
- Santalum spicatum Frangrant Sandalwood, western Australian sandalwood